When people are walking on sidewalks, their subconscious may be telling them they are trespassing. They are trespassing on the territory for dogs.
There seems to be something more fundamental lacking in the engineer’s preparedness for their job. Despite finding a lack of key information in the published instructions on either the biocide or the maintenance manual, they were not deterred in their confidence that this should be a simple task. They were convinced the task was simple, and the circumstances did nothing to undermine that confidence. The missing element in this scenario was self-supervision.
Grading is important. Making high grades is important only for those who will end up standing on the shoulders of giants. For everyone else and for society as a whole, the optimal grade is a C.
I think education needs grades and that the grades ideally should be measured on a bell curve. The grades identify where to cut the tails off of the central cohort. The tests need to be challenging enough to expose those tails so that they may be trimmed from the cohort. Our problem is our failure to recognize that the C grade is the ideal grade.